Egg costs rose 60% in 2022. One farm group claims it is a ‘collusive scheme’ by suppliers

Eggs on the market at elevated costs in New York on Jan 21, 2023.

Fatih Aktas/Anadolu Company through Getty Pictures)

Egg costs soared to traditionally excessive ranges in 2022 — and one group is alleging the pattern is because of one thing extra nefarious than easy economics.

Throughout all egg sorts, shoppers noticed common costs soar 60% final 12 months — among the largest percentage increases of any U.S. good or service, in keeping with the buyer value index, an inflation measure.

Giant, Grade A eggs price $4.25 a dozen in December, on common — a 138% enhance from $1.79 a 12 months earlier, in keeping with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data.

The business narrative has largely centered on a historic outbreak of avian influenza — which has killed tens of thousands and thousands of egg-laying hens — because the primary driver of those higher prices.

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However Farm Motion, a farmer-led advocacy group, claims the “actual perpetrator” is a “collusive scheme” amongst main egg producers to repair and gouge costs, the group stated in a letter to the Federal Commerce Fee.

Doing so has helped producers “extract egregious earnings reaching as excessive as 40%,” in keeping with the letter, issued Thursday, which asks FTC Chair Lina Khan to analyze for potential profiteering and “foul play.”

An FTC spokesman declined to remark resulting from a common company coverage relating to letters, petitions or complaints acquired from third events.

Here's why eggs cost so much

Nonetheless, meals economists are skeptical an inquiry would uncover wrongdoing.

“I do not suppose we have seen something that makes us suppose that there is one thing there aside from regular economics taking place proper now,” stated Amy Smith, vp at Superior Financial Options.

“I believe it was simply form of an ideal storm of stuff that got here collectively,” she added.

Economics or ‘profiteering’?

The U.S. suffered its deadliest outbreak of chook flu in historical past in 2022.

“Extremely pathogenic avian influenza” killed about 58 million birds throughout 47 states, according to the U.S. Division of Agriculture. The prior file was set in 2015, when 50.5 million birds died.  

The illness, which is contagious and deadly, impacts many varieties of birds, together with egg-laying hens.

In December, the common variety of “layers” was down 5% from a 12 months earlier, at a complete 374 million birds, in keeping with USDA data printed Friday. Total manufacturing of desk eggs fell by 6.6% over the identical interval, to 652.2 million, information confirmed.

These business figures do not appear to sq. with a two- or three-digit share spike in egg costs final 12 months, Farm Motion claims.

“Opposite to business narratives, the rise within the value of eggs has not been an ‘Act of God‘ — it has been easy profiteering,” the group stated.

For instance, the earnings of Cal-Maine Meals — the nation’s largest egg producer and an business bellwether — “elevated in lockstep with rising egg costs via each quarter of the 12 months,” Farm Motion claimed. The corporate reported a tenfold enhance in earnings over the 26-week interval ended Nov. 26, for instance, Farm Motion stated.

Whereas different main producers do not report such info publicly, “Cal-Maine’s willingness to extend its costs — and revenue margins — to such unprecedented ranges suggests foul play,” Farm Motion wrote.

Max Bowman, Cal-Maine’s vp and chief monetary officer, denied the allegations, calling the U.S. egg market “intensely aggressive and extremely unstable even beneath regular circumstances.”

Fowl flu’s vital influence on hen provide has been probably the most notable driver, whereas egg demand has remained robust, Bowman stated in a written assertion.

Bills for feed, labor, gas and packaging have additionally “risen significantly,” feeding through to increased total manufacturing prices and, finally, wholesale and retail egg costs, he stated. Cal-Maine additionally would not promote eggs on to shoppers or set retail costs, Bowman added.

A ‘compounding impact’ of chook flu on egg costs

Charly Triballeau | Afp | Getty Pictures

Cal-Maine’s assertion appears to sq. with the overall outlook of meals economists reached by CNBC.

“We have by no means seen [these prices],” stated Angel Rubio, senior analyst at Urner Barry, a market analysis agency specializing within the wholesale meals business. “However we additionally have not seen [avian flu] outbreaks month after month after month like this.”

In economics, markets are nearly by no means completely “elastic,” Rubio stated. On this case, which means there’s usually not a 1:1 relationship between egg or hen provide and egg costs.

Throughout the prior bird-flu outbreak in 2015, wholesale egg costs rose about 6% to eight% for each 1% lower within the variety of egg-laying hens, on common, Urner Barry present in a current analysis.

About 42.5 million layers (about 13%) have died because the 2022 outbreak, in keeping with Urner Barry. Costs have elevated about 15% for each 1% lower in egg layers over that point, on common, Rubio stated.

The pricing market is already coming down post-holiday.

Amy Smith

vp at Superior Financial Options

The dynamic is essentially resulting from a “compounding impact” of demand, Rubio stated.

For instance, to illustrate an enormous grocery store chain has a contract to purchase eggs from a producer at a wholesale value of $1 per dozen. However that egg provider then suffers a bird-flu outbreak. All provide from that supply comes offline briefly. So, the grocery store chain should then procure eggs from one other provider — elevating demand for the opposite provider’s eggs, which could finally promote eggs to the grocery store for $1.05 or extra a dozen.

As soon as a farm suffers a flu outbreak, it doubtless will not produce eggs once more for a minimum of six months, Rubio stated.

This dynamic is going on concurrently throughout a number of farms and supermarkets. Fowl flu additionally usually dissipates in the summertime, however outbreaks started anew in final autumn heading into peak demand season across the winter holidays, Rubio stated.

Excellent news forward?

Easter is often one other interval of excessive seasonal demand for eggs.

F.j. Jimenez | Second | Getty Pictures

Some excellent news for shoppers could also be forward, although, economists stated.

Wholesale egg costs had declined to about $3.40 a dozen as of Friday, down from a peak $5.46 a dozen on Dec. 23, Rubio stated. (Present wholesale costs are nonetheless nearly triple their “regular” stage, Rubio stated.)

On common, it takes about 4 weeks for wholesale value actions to be mirrored within the retail marketplace for shoppers, Rubio stated.

“The pricing market is already coming down post-holiday,” stated Smith at Superior Financial Options.

The Easter vacation is often one other interval of excessive seasonal demand, nonetheless, which means costs might keep elevated via March, assuming the bird-flu outbreak would not worsen, economists stated.

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